Multimodal image fusion for image guidance in minimally invasive liver interventions generally requires the registration of pre-operatively acquired images with interventional images of the patient. Whereas rigid registration approaches are fast and can be used in an interventional setting, the actual liver deformation may be nonrigid. The purpose of this paper is to assess the magnitude of nonrigid deformation of the liver between pre-operative and interventional CT images in the case of tumor ablations, over the full liver and over parts of the liver that match the volumes typically imaged by a 3D ultrasound transducer. We acquired 3D abdominal CT scans of 38 patients that had undergone the radiofrequency ablation of liver tumors, pre-operative CT images as well as intraoperative CT images. To determine the magnitude of liver deformation due to pose changes and respiration, we nonrigidly registered the pre-operative CT scan with the intraoperative CT scan. By fitting the deformation to a rigid transformation in the region of interest and computing the residual displacements, the nonrigid deformation part can be quantified. We performed quantifications over the complete liver, as well as for two volumes of interest representative of sub-xiphoidal and intercostal 3D ultrasound acquisitions. The results showed that a substantial amount of nonrigid deformation was found, and rotation of the patient's pose and deep inhalation caused significant liver deformation. Hence we concluded that nonrigid motion correction in the interventions should be taken into account.

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Keywords CT image, liver deformation, nonrigid registration, radiofrequency ablation, US volume
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Journal Physics in Medicine and Biology
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Luu, H.M, Moelker, A, Klein, S, Niessen, W.J, & van Walsum, T.W. (2018). Quantification of nonrigid liver deformation in radiofrequency ablation interventions using image registration. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 63(17). doi:10.1088/1361-6560/aad706