Purpose of Review: This review summarizes the basic principles of Mendelian randomization (MR) and provides evidence for the causal effect of multiple modifiable factors on bone outcomes. Recent Findings: Several studies using MR approach have provided support for the causal effect of obesity on bone mineral density (BMD). Strikingly, studies have failed to prove a causal association between elevated 25(OH) D concentrations and higher BMD in community-dwelling individuals. Summary: The MR approach has been successfully used to evaluate multiple factors related to bone mineral density variation and/or fracture risk. The MR approach avoids some of the classical observational study limitations and provides more robust causal evidence, ensuring bigger success of the clinical trials. The selection of interventions based on genetic evidence could have a substantial impact on clinical practice.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Bone mineral density, Fractures, Mendelian randomization, Osteoporosis, Review
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0467-3, hdl.handle.net/1765/110440
Journal Current Osteoporosis Reports
Citation
Trajanoska, K, & Rivadeneira Ramirez, F. (2018). Using Mendelian Randomization to Decipher Mechanisms of Bone Disease. Current Osteoporosis Reports. doi:10.1007/s11914-018-0467-3