The study of neuronal morphology in relation to function, and the development of effective medicines to positively impact this relationship in patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases, increasingly involves image-based high-content screening and analysis. The first critical step toward fully automated high-content image analyses in such studies is to detect all neuronal cells and distinguish them from possible non-neuronal cells or artifacts in the images. Here we investigate the performance of well-established machine learning techniques for this purpose. These include support vector machines, random forests, k-nearest neighbors, and generalized linear model classifiers, operating on an extensive set of image features extracted using the compound hierarchy of algorithms representing morphology, and the scale-invariant feature transform. We present experiments on a dataset of rat hippocampal neurons from our own studies to find the most suitable classifier(s) and subset(s) of features in the common practical setting where there is very limited annotated data for training. The results indicate that a random forests classifier using the right feature subset ranks best for the considered task, although its performance is not statistically significantly better than some support vector machine based classification models.

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Keywords Fluorescence microscopy, High-content analysis, Machine learning, Neuron detection
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Journal Neuroinformatics
Mata, G. (Gadea), Radojević, M, Fernandez-Lozano, C. (Carlos), Smal, I, Werij, N. (Niels), Morales, M. (Miguel), … Rubio, J. (Julio). (2018). Automated Neuron Detection in High-Content Fluorescence Microscopy Images Using Machine Learning. Neuroinformatics. doi:10.1007/s12021-018-9399-4