We recently showed that the outcome of multiple myeloma (MM) patients treated in the REPEAT study (evaluation of lenalidomide combined with low-dose cyclophosphamide and prednisone (REP) in lenalidomide-refractory MM) was markedly better than what has been described with cyclophosphamide-prednisone alone. The outcome with REP was not associated with plasma cell Cereblon expression levels, suggesting that the effect of REP treatment may involve mechanisms independent of plasma cell Cereblon-mediated direct anti-tumor activity. We therefore hypothesized that immunomodulatory effects contribute to the anti-MM activity of REP treatment, rather than plasma cell Cereblon-mediated effects. Consequently, we now characterized the effect of REP treatment on immune cell subsets in peripheral blood samples collected on day 1 and 14 of cycle 1, as well as on day 1 of cycle 2. We observed a significant mid-cycle decrease in the Cereblon substrate proteins Ikaros and Aiolos in diverse lymphocyte subsets, which was paralleled by an increase in T-cell activation. These effects were restored to baseline at day one of the second cycle, one week after lenalidomide interruption. In vitro, lenalidomide enhanced peripheral blood mononuclear cell-mediated killing of both lenalidomide-sensitive and lenalidomide-resistant MM cells in a co-culture system. These results indicate that the Cereblon-mediated immunomodulatory properties of lenalidomide are maintained in lenalidomide-refractory MM patients and may contribute to immune-mediated killing of MM cells. Therefore, combining lenalidomide with other drugs can have potent effects through immunomodulation, even in patients considered to be lenalidomide-refractory.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Cyclophosphamide, Immunomodulation, Lenalidomide, Multiple myeloma, Refractory
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.26131, hdl.handle.net/1765/110539
Journal Oncotarget
Franssen, L.E. (Laurens E.), Nijhof, I.S. (Inger S.), Bjorklund, C.C. (Chad C.), Chiu, H. (Hsiling), Doorn, R. (Ruud), Van Velzen, J. (Jeroen), … van de Donk, N.W.C.J. (2018). Lenalidomide combined with low-dose cyclophosphamide and prednisone modulates Ikaros and Aiolos in lymphocytes, resulting in immunostimulatory effects in lenalidomide-refractory multiple myeloma patients. Oncotarget, 9(74), 34009–34021. doi:10.18632/oncotarget.26131