Three-dimensional evaluation of mandibular midline distraction: A systematic review
Objective: To provide a literature overview on mandibular midline distraction (MMD) using three-dimensional (3D) imaging analysis techniques. Regarding different distractor types, the focus was on changes in position and/or morphology of the mandibular condyle and temporomandibular joint (TMJ), skeletal effects, dental effects, soft tissue effects, and biomechanical and masticatory effects, specifically on the mandible and TMJ. Methods: Studies up to March 27 2017 were included, in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement guidelines, using Embase, Medline OvidSP, Web-of-science, Scopus, Cochrane, and Google Scholar. Results: Thirty-one full-text papers were assessed for eligibility and 15 met the inclusion criteria: prospective (2), retrospective (2), case-report (1) and computational analysis (10). All included studies were graded low (level 4–5) for quality of evidence, using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine criteria. Conclusion: There is a limited number of studies available, with low levels of evidence and small sample sizes. Bone-borne distraction seems preferable when taking skeletal effects into account. Tooth-borne distraction leads to significant dental tipping. Hybrid distractors combined with parasymphyseal step osteotomy seem to be the most stable under functional masticatory loads. The effects of chewing appeared to be marginal during the latency period. No permanent TMJ symptoms were reported, and little is known about soft tissue effects. Systematic review registration: International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews, PROSPERO CRD42014010010.