SUMMARY: This article focuses on the political economy of Ethiopia since the ruling party EPRDF came to power in 1991 and argues that the country has seen the rise of oligarchy during this period. The party claims that its development strategy has reduced poverty, but it is evident that the country’s inequality has been growing in the past decade. The briefing identifies the mechanisms of oligarchisation, most notably privatisation, land expropriation, phoney shareholding and corruption. The conclusion is that Ethiopia’s growing inequality is related to the process of oligarchy formation.