In this study, we compared complete pathological downstaging (pCD, ≤(y)pT1N0) and overall survival (OS) in patients with cT2 versus cT3–4aN0M0 UC of the bladder undergoing radical cystectomy (RC) with or without neoadjuvant chemo- (NAC) or radiotherapy (NAR). A population-based sample of 5,517 patients, who underwent upfront RC versus NAC + RC or NAR + RC for cT2-4aN0M0 UC between 1995–2013, was identified from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Data were retrieved from individual patient files and pathology reports. pCD-rates were compared using Chi-square tests and OS was estimated by Kaplan–Meier analyses. Multivariable analyses were conducted to determine odds (OR) and hazard ratios (HR) for pCD-status and OS, respectively. We included 4,504 (82%) patients with cT2 and 1,013 (18%) with cT3–4a UC. Median follow-up was 9.2 years. In cT2 UC, pCD-rate was 25% after upfront RC versus 43% (p < 0.001) and 33% (p = 0.130) after NAC + RC and NAR + RC, respectively. In cT3–4a UC, pCD-rate was 8% after upfront RC versus 37% (p < 0.001) and 16% (p = 0.281) after NAC + RC and NAR + RC, respectively. In cT2 UC, 5-year OS was 57% and 51% for NAC + RC and upfront RC, respectively (p = 0.135), whereas in cT3–4a UC, 5-year OS was 55% for NAC + RC versus 36% for upfront RC (p < 0.001). In multivariable analysis for OS, NAC was beneficial in cT3–4a UC (HR: 0.67, 95%CI 0.51–0.89) but not in cT2 UC (HR: 0.91, 95%CI 0.72–1.15). NAR did not influence OS. In conclusion, NAC + RC was associated with superior pCD compared to RC alone and NAR + RC. Superior OS for NAC + RC compared to RC alone was especially evident in cT3–4a disease.

muscle-invasive bladder cancer, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, neoadjuvant radiotherapy, radical cystectomy, survival,
International Journal of Cancer
Department of Urology

Hermans, T.J.N, Voskuilen, C.S. (C. S.), Deelen, M. (M.), Mertens, L.S. (L. S.), Horenblas, S, Meijer, R.P. (R. P.), … van Rhijn, B.W.G. (2018). Superior efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical cystectomy in cT3-4aN0M0 compared to cT2N0M0 bladder cancer. International Journal of Cancer. doi:10.1002/ijc.31833