In this study, we compared complete pathological downstaging (pCD, ≤(y)pT1N0) and overall survival (OS) in patients with cT2 versus cT3–4aN0M0 UC of the bladder undergoing radical cystectomy (RC) with or without neoadjuvant chemo- (NAC) or radiotherapy (NAR). A population-based sample of 5,517 patients, who underwent upfront RC versus NAC + RC or NAR + RC for cT2-4aN0M0 UC between 1995–2013, was identified from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Data were retrieved from individual patient files and pathology reports. pCD-rates were compared using Chi-square tests and OS was estimated by Kaplan–Meier analyses. Multivariable analyses were conducted to determine odds (OR) and hazard ratios (HR) for pCD-status and OS, respectively. We included 4,504 (82%) patients with cT2 and 1,013 (18%) with cT3–4a UC. Median follow-up was 9.2 years. In cT2 UC, pCD-rate was 25% after upfront RC versus 43% (p < 0.001) and 33% (p = 0.130) after NAC + RC and NAR + RC, respectively. In cT3–4a UC, pCD-rate was 8% after upfront RC versus 37% (p < 0.001) and 16% (p = 0.281) after NAC + RC and NAR + RC, respectively. In cT2 UC, 5-year OS was 57% and 51% for NAC + RC and upfront RC, respectively (p = 0.135), whereas in cT3–4a UC, 5-year OS was 55% for NAC + RC versus 36% for upfront RC (p < 0.001). In multivariable analysis for OS, NAC was beneficial in cT3–4a UC (HR: 0.67, 95%CI 0.51–0.89) but not in cT2 UC (HR: 0.91, 95%CI 0.72–1.15). NAR did not influence OS. In conclusion, NAC + RC was associated with superior pCD compared to RC alone and NAR + RC. Superior OS for NAC + RC compared to RC alone was especially evident in cT3–4a disease.

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International Journal of Cancer
Department of Urology

Hermans, T.J.N, Voskuilen, C.S. (C. S.), Deelen, M. (M.), Mertens, L.S. (L. S.), Horenblas, S, Meijer, R.P. (R. P.), … van Rhijn, B.W.G. (2018). Superior efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical cystectomy in cT3-4aN0M0 compared to cT2N0M0 bladder cancer. International Journal of Cancer. doi:10.1002/ijc.31833