Purpose: In the Netherlands, youth health care physicians and nurses screen all children for general health disorders at Child Health Care Centers. As part of this, the eyes are screened seven times, with the first visual acuity (VA) measurement at 36 months with the Amsterdam Picture Chart (APK). The suitability of the APK has been questioned. Methods: Children born between July 2011 and June 2012 born in the provinces Drenthe, Gelderland and Flevoland and invited for screening at 36 months were eligible. Parents were sent the APK picture optotypes to practise with their children in advance. Data were collected from electronic screening records. The Dutch vision screening guideline prescribes that children with VA <5/6, or one line interocular difference (not logMAR, however) should be retested or referred. Results: Of 10 809 eligible children, 1546 did not attend and 602 attended but had no VA measurement at age 36 months, 247 of these were under orthoptic treatment. Of the 8448 children examined, VA was sufficient in 5663 (67.0%) and insufficient in 1312 (15.5%). In 1400 (16.6%), the measurement of VA itself failed. In 73 (0.9%), data were missing. Of the 216 children with 2 failed VA measurements, 150 (69%) were not referred, and measurement of VA was deferred to the next general screening examination at 45 months. Conclusion: Although most parents had practised the APK picture optotypes at home with their children, the rate of failed APK measurements plus the measurements with insufficient VA was 32.1% at 36 months. Similar rates have previously been reported for Lea Symbols and HOTV, permitting the conclusion that measurement of VA at the age of 36 months cannot be recommended as a screening test in the general population.

Additional Metadata
Keywords amblyopia, optotypes, paediatric vision screening, visual acuity, visual development
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1111/aos.13898, hdl.handle.net/1765/110866
Journal Acta Ophthalmologica
Citation
Telleman, M.A.J. (Marieke A. J.), Sloot, F, Benjamins, J, & Simonsz, H.J. (2018). High rate of failed visual-acuity measurements with the Amsterdam Picture Chart in screening at the age of 36 months. Acta Ophthalmologica. doi:10.1111/aos.13898