Introduction: Achieving continence in children with neurogenic sphincteric incompetence is a challenge. Awareness of the long-term outcome in this young patient population is important. In the past 25 years, the study institution has built experience in bladder outlet procedures such as bladder neck sling and bladder neck reconstructions. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcome on continence and re-intervention rate of bladder outlet procedures in children with neurogenic urinary incontinence at the study institution. Design: All children who underwent a bladder neck procedure between 1992 and 2017 at the study institution were retrospectively reviewed. Continence at the end of follow-up was the primary endpoint, defined as ‘dry’ when there was an interval of a minimum of 4 h without urinary leakage. Non-parametric tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: During this 25-year period, a total of 60 children underwent a bladder outlet procedure, either a bladder neck sling (n = 43) or a bladder neck reconstruction (n = 17). The median age at surgery was 11.6 years (interquartile range [IQR] 7.8–13.9). Concomitant surgery consisted of bladder augmentation in 80% and continent catheterizable urinary channel in 97% of children. Dry rate within 1 year was 38%. After a median follow-up of 10.4 years (IQR 6.5–15.5), 77% of all children were dry. Twenty-five children (42%) needed one or more re-interventions, including redo of the bladder outlet procedure, other type of outlet procedure, bulking agents, bladder augmentation, and bladder neck closure. Discussion: This study confirms that achieving continence is a challenge. The inconsistent use of the definition of urinary continence creates confusion in the literature and makes comparison of outcome with other studies difficult. Openness of (long-term) results in achieving urinary continence is important and helpful for future patients. Conclusion: On the long term, the majority of children with neurogenic urinary incontinence were dry after a bladder outlet procedure, but a considerable number of patients had a re-intervention. The initial outcome on continence was slightly disappointing. Reporting long-term results is essential and helpful for patient counseling. [Table presented]

Additional Metadata
Keywords Myelomeningocele, Neurogenic bladder, Surgical procedures, Urinary incontinence
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpurol.2018.08.018, hdl.handle.net/1765/110961
Journal Journal of Pediatric Urology
Citation
Noordhoff, T.C, van den Hoek, J, Yska, M.J. (M. J.), Wolffenbuttel, K.P, Blok, B.F.M, & Scheepe, J.R. (2018). Long-term follow-up of bladder outlet procedures in children with neurogenic urinary incontinence. Journal of Pediatric Urology. doi:10.1016/j.jpurol.2018.08.018