Activation of NF-κB signaling in mesenchymal cells is common in LR-MDS.Activation of NF-κB in mesenchymal cells leads to transcriptional overexpression of inflammatory factors including negative regulators of hematopoiesis.Activation of NF-κB attenuates HSPC numbers and function ex vivo.,

Ping, Z., Chen, S., Hermans, S.J.F. (Sjoerd J. F.), Kenswil, K., Feyen, J. (Jacqueline), van Dijk, C. (Claire), … Raaijmakers, M. (2018). Activation of NF-κB driven inflammatory programs in mesenchymal elements attenuates hematopoiesis in low-risk myelodysplastic syndromes. Leukemia. doi:10.1038/s41375-018-0267-x