This chapter provides an overview of neurocognitive mechanisms of cocaine addiction and their association with treatment outcome and relapse. Earlier substance relapse prediction studies have primarily focused on self-report measures such as craving levels. In the last decade, addiction theories and research have underlined the role of cognitive motivational and control processes, which has resulted in a current focus on neurocognitive measures as relapse predictors. Implicit processes, such as attentional bias and cognitive control, are typically measured using reaction-time tasks that are implemented in relatively new methodologies such as ecological momentary assessment, electroencephalography, and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results show that these processes in prefrontal brain areas and areas in the insular network are associated with relapse. These measures might help to identify those individuals who are at risk of relapse. However, the sensitivity, specificity, and feasibility of these measures need to be considered carefully before implementation in clinical practice.

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Keywords Attentional bias, Cognitive control, Ecological momentary assessment (EMA), Electroencephalography (EEG), Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), Neurocognitive measures, Relapse, Treatment outcome
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Marhe, R. (2017). Cocaine and an Overview of Neurocognitive Relapse Predictors. In The Neuroscience of Cocaine: Mechanisms and Treatment (pp. 617–625). doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-803750-8.00062-2