N-acetylglutamate synthase deficiency (NAGSD, MIM #237310) is an autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle that results from absent or decreased production of N-acetylglutamate (NAG) due to either decreased NAGS gene expression or defective NAGS enzyme. NAG is essential for the activity of carbamylphosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1), the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the urea cycle. NAGSD is the only urea cycle disorder that can be treated with a single drug, N-carbamylglutamate (NCG), which can activate CPS1 and completely restore ureagenesis in patients with NAGSD. We describe a novel sequence variant NM_153006.2:c.-3026C > T in the NAGS enhancer that was found in three patients from two families with NAGSD; two patients had hyperammonemia that resolved upon treatment with NCG, while the third patient increased dietary protein intake after initiation of NCG therapy. Two patients were homozygous for the variant while the third patient had the c.-3026C > T variant and a partial uniparental disomy that encompassed the NAGS gene on chromosome 17. The c.-3026C > T sequence variant affects a base pair that is highly conserved in vertebrates; the variant is predicted to be deleterious by several bioinformatics tools. Functional assays in cultured HepG2 cells demonstrated that the c.-3026C > T substitution could result in reduced expression of the NAGS gene. These findings underscore the importance of analyzing NAGS gene regulatory regions when looking for molecular causes of NAGSD.

doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-33457-0, hdl.handle.net/1765/111431
Scientific Reports

Williams, M. (Monique), Burlina, A., Rubert, L. (Laura), Polo, G. (Giulia), Ruijter, G., van den Born, M., … Caldovic, L. (Ljubica). (2018). N-Acetylglutamate Synthase Deficiency Due to a Recurrent Sequence Variant in the N-acetylglutamate Synthase Enhancer Region. Scientific Reports, 8(1). doi:10.1038/s41598-018-33457-0