This article is the second of a two-part review aiming to identify gaps in the knowledge and management of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 drug resistance (HIVDR) from global and regional perspectives. Here, we examine the policy and programmatic gaps in HIVDR surveillance, the affected populations and settings, and implications for clinical practice. The expert authorship of this review convened to identify gaps in HIVDR surveillance, with a particular focus on specific regional variations within and between Europe and Asia, to highlight directions for research and implementation. Further, evidence was gathered from a review of published studies, guidelines, and current practices. This review found that despite recent progress in the development, harmonization, and implementation of guidelines on HIVDR reporting and surveillance, programmatic, and policy gaps reflect the regional variability in HIV epidemics, clinical practice, and resources. The need for representative surveillance was identified as a key gap that has the potential to inform management policies. Monitoring must keep up with the evolution of transmission routes to adapt appropriately, and this will be further impacted by migration from areas with increasing levels of resistance. Analysis of the latest clinical data, regional practice, policy, and guidelines has identified a number of gaps in HIVDR population monitoring and surveillance. More efforts are needed to align surveillance platforms with harm reduction and patient education, particularly in vulnerable subgroups. Addressing these gaps will facilitate research into and progress in the management of HIV across a wide range of health-care settings.

Additional Metadata
Persistent URL
Journal AIDS reviews
Boucher, C.A.B, Bobkova, M.R. (Marina R.), Hung, C.-C. (Chien-Ching), Kaiser, R, Marcelin, A.-G, Streinu-Cercel, A, … Vandamme, A.M. (2018). State of the Art in HIV Drug Resistance: Surveillance and Regional Gaps. AIDS reviews (Vol. 20, pp. 43–57). Retrieved from