Large cribriform growth pattern identifies ISUP grade 2 prostate cancer at high risk for recurrence and metastasis
Modern Pathology Issue 32 p. 139- 146
Invasive cribriform and intraductal carcinoma are associated with adverse clinical outcome in patients with Gleason score 7 prostate cancer. It is yet unclear whether invasive cribriform and intraductal carcinoma of the prostate both have independent prognostic value, or whether field size of invasive cribriform carcinoma has impact on disease outcome. Our objective was to determine the prognostic impact of intraductal and invasive cribriform prostate cancer histological subtypes in radical prostatectomies. We reviewed 420 prostatectomy specimens with ISUP grade 2 prostate cancer, assessed the percentages of Gleason grade 4 and tertiary 5, and performed immunohistochemistry for basal cells to discriminate intraductal from invasive cribriform growth. Small and large invasive cribriform fields were distinguished based on a diameter of at least twice the size of adjacent pre-existent normal glands. Clinicopathological parameters and biochemical recurrence-free survival were used as endpoints. Cribriform architecture was observed in 228 (54.3%) men, 103 (24.5%) of whom had intraductal, 194 (46.2%) small invasive, and 34 (8.1%) large invasive cribriform growth. Large invasive cribriform architecture was associated with older age (P < 0.001), higher percentage Gleason grade 4 (P = 0.001), extraprostatic expansion (P < 0.001), and more frequent lymph node metastases (P = 0.002), when compared with small invasive cribriform and/or intraductal carcinoma. Univariate analysis identified PSA, pT-stage, surgical margin status, and intraductal and invasive cribriform growth as significant predictors for biochemical recurrence-free survival. In multivariable Cox regression analysis, pT-stage (hazard ratio = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.02–2.63, P = 0.04), positive surgical margins (hazard ratio = 3.28, 95% CI: 2.06–5.23, P < 0.001), and large cribriform growth (hazard ratio = 4.36, 95% CI: 2.08–9.17, P < 0.001) were independent predictors for biochemical recurrence-free survival, while intraductal carcinoma, small cribriform growth, and percentage of Gleason grade 4 were not. In conclusion, large cribriform fields represent an aggressive subpattern of invasive cribriform prostate cancer and are an independent predictive factor for biochemical recurrence-free survival in ISUP grade 2 prostate cancer patients.