Purpose: Pathogenic variants in ARID1B are one of the most frequent causes of intellectual disability (ID) as determined by large-scale exome sequencing studies. Most studies published thus far describe clinically diagnosed Coffin–Siris patients (ARID1B-CSS) and it is unclear whether these data are representative for patients identified through sequencing of unbiased ID cohorts (ARID1B-ID). We therefore sought to determine genotypic and phenotypic differences between ARID1B-ID and ARID1B-CSS. In parallel, we investigated the effect of different methods of phenotype reporting. Methods: Clinicians entered clinical data in an extensive web-based survey. Results: 79 ARID1B-CSS and 64 ARID1B-ID patients were included. CSS-associated dysmorphic features, such as thick eyebrows, long eyelashes, thick alae nasi, long and/or broad philtrum, small nails and small or absent fifth distal phalanx and hypertrichosis, were observed significantly more often (p < 0.001) in ARID1B-CSS patients. No other significant differences were identified. Conclusion: There are only minor differences between ARID1B-ID and ARID1B-CSS patients. ARID1B-related disorders seem to consist of a spectrum, and patients should be managed similarly. We demonstrated that data collection methods without an explicit option to report the absence of a feature (such as most Human Phenotype Ontology-based methods) tended to underestimate gene-related features.

Additional Metadata
Keywords ARID1B, bias, Coffin–Siris syndrome, intellectual disability
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-018-0330-z, hdl.handle.net/1765/111659
Journal Genetics in Medicine
Citation
van der Sluijs, E.P.J. (Eline (P.J.)), Jansen, S. (Sandra), Vergano, S.A. (Samantha A.), Adachi-Fukuda, M. (Miho), Alanay, Y, AlKindy, A. (Adila), … Santen, G.W.E. (2018). The ARID1B spectrum in 143 patients: from nonsyndromic intellectual disability to Coffin–Siris syndrome. Genetics in Medicine. doi:10.1038/s41436-018-0330-z