Innate and adaptive immune effector mechanisms, in conjunction with hyperlipidemia, are important drivers of atherosclerosis. The interaction between the different immune cells and the secretion of cytokines and chemokines determine the progression of atherosclerosis. The activation or dampening of the immune response is tightly controlled by immune checkpoints. Costimulatory and coinhibitory immune checkpoints represent potential targets for immune modulatory therapies for atherosclerosis. This review will discuss the current knowledge on immune checkpoints in atherosclerosis and the clinical potential of immune checkpoint targeted therapy for atherosclerosis.

atherosclerosis, chemokines, cytokines, hyperlipidemia, mice,
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
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Rouwet, E.V, & Lutgens, E. (2018). Immune Checkpoints in Atherosclerosis: Toward Immunotherapy for Atheroprotection. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 38(8), 1678–1688. doi:10.1161/ATVBAHA.118.307742