Background: Very low‐birth‐weight (VLBW) infants are at risk for neurodevelopment impairment. This study assessed the effect of early aggressive parenteral nutrition (PN) on long‐term outcome in VLBW infants. Materials and Methods: Directly after birth, VLBW infants (birth weight <1500 g, n = 142) were randomized to 5 different PN regimes. Controls (n = 46) received glucose and standard‐dose amino acids (AAs; 2.4 g/[kg·d]) from birth onward and pure soybean oil fat emulsion (SOY) on the second day of life. Two intervention groups received glucose, standard‐dose AAs, and lipids from birth onward: SOY (n = 24) or mixed fat emulsion (MIX, n = 25). The 2 other intervention groups received glucose, high‐dose AAs (3.6 g/[kg·d]), and lipids from birth onward: SOY (n = 24) or MIX (n = 23). The primary outcome of this follow‐up study was the composite outcome of “death or major disability” at 2 years corrected age. Secondary outcomes were death, major disabilities, neurodevelopmental scores, and anthropometry. Results: Follow‐up rate was 92% (n = 134). Thirty‐five (26%) infants had died or had a major disability, with no differences between intervention groups and controls. Increased odds for death were observed in the standard‐dose AA‐MIX group (odds ratio, 5.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–27.0). Neurodevelopmental scores and incidence of major disabilities did not differ between groups. Growth in the high‐dose AA‐MIX group was enhanced compared with growth in controls at 2 years corrected age (+0.51 [0.01–1.02] weight SDS). Conclusion: This randomized controlled hypothesis‐generating study demonstrated no beneficial effect of early high‐dose AA administration and mixed fat emulsions on survival and neurodevelopmental outcome in VLBW infants, although growth was enhanced.

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Journal Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Roelants, J.A, Vlaardingerbroek, H, van den Akker, C.H.P, de Jonge, R.C.J, van Goudoever, J.B, & Vermeulen, M.J. (2018). Two-Year Follow-up of a Randomized Controlled Nutrition Intervention Trial in Very Low-Birth-Weight Infants. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 42(1), 122–130. doi:10.1177/0148607116678196