Age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are posing an increasing impact on society, mainly due to increasing life expectancy. AD is characterized by the presence of neuro?brillary tangles and neuritic plaques in postmortem brain tissue (Figure 2.1). Plaques consist of extracellular aggregates of amyloid beta (Abeta) peptides derived from amyloid precursor protein (APP), accompanied by in?ammation and astrogliosis. Tangles are intraneuronal accumulations of insoluble and hyperphosphorylated tau, a microtubule-binding protein (Hardy, 2003).

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Teunissen, C.E, & van der Cammen, T.J.M. (2007). Alzheimer’s disease. In Protein Misfolding in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Mechanisms and Therapeutic Strategies (pp. 69–94). Retrieved from