Background: To generate Chinese population norms for the EQ-5D-5L dimensions, EQ-VAS (Visual Analogue Scale) scores and EQ-5D-5L index scores, stratified by gender and age. The EQ-5D is a widely used generic health-related quality of life instrument to describe population health and health outcomes in clinical trials and health economic evaluations. Currently, there are no EQ-5D-5L population norms for China. Methods: This norm study utilized the data collected in an EQ-5D-5L valuation study in China between December 2012 and January 2013. In the valuation study, respondents were asked to report their own health states using the EQ-5D-5L descriptive system and the EQ-VAS. Respondents' demographic information was also collected. The EQ index score was calculated using the EQ-5D-5L value set based on the Chinese urban population. Norm scores were reported by important demographic variables. Results: The mean EQ-VAS scores ranged between 88.3 for males of < 19 years and 82.9 for females of 60-69 years. Contrary to other population studies, females reported higher EQ-VAS scores than males in every age group except for 20-29 years. The mean EQ-5D-5L index values ranged from 0.912 for females of > 70 years to 0.971 for females of 30-39 years. Respondents reported more problems in the dimensions 'pain/discomfort' and 'anxiety/depression' than in the dimensions 'mobility', 'self-care' and 'usual activities' in all age groups. Conclusions: The population norm scores for the EQ-5D can be used as reference values for comparative purposes in future Chinese studies. Further research into rural and/or a more representative population is warranted.

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Keywords China, EQ-5D-5L, HRQoL, Population norm
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Journal Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Yang, Z, van Busschbach, J.J, Liu, G. (Gordon), & Luo, N. (2018). EQ-5D-5L norms for the urban Chinese population in China 11 Medical and Health Sciences 1117 Public Health and Health Services. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 16(1). doi:10.1186/s12955-018-1036-2