Background: The risk of gallstone disease necessitating cholecystectomy after ileal resection (IR) in Crohn’s disease (CD) patients is not well established. We studied the incidence, cumulative and relative risk of cholecystectomy after IR in CD patients, and associated risk factors. Methods: CD patients with a first IR between 1991 and 2015 were identified in PALGA, a nationwide pathology database in the Netherlands. Details on subsequent cholecystectomy and IR were recorded. Yearly cholecystectomy rates from the general Dutch population were used as a reference. Results: A cohort of 8302 (3466 (41.7%) males) CD patients after IR was identified. During the 11.9 (IQR 6.3–18.0) years median follow-up, the post-IR incidence rate of cholecystectomy was 5.2 (95% CI 3.5–6.4)/1000 persons/year. The cumulative incidence was 0.5% at 1 year, 2.4% at 5 years, 4.6% at 10 years, and 10.3% after 20 years. In multivariable analyses, female sex (HR 1.9, CI 1.5–2.3), a later calendar year of first IR (HR/5-year increase, HR 1.27, CI 1.18–1.35), and ileal re-resection (time-dependent HR 1.37, CI 1.06–1.77) were associated with cholecystectomy. In the last decade, cholecystectomy rates increased and were higher in our postoperative CD population than in the general population (relative incidence ratio 3.13 (CI 2.29–4.28; p < 0.0001) in 2015). Conclusions: Although higher in females, increasing in recent years, and higher than in the general population, the overall risk of cholecystectomy in CD patients following IR is low and routine prophylactic measures seem unwarranted.

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Keywords Cholecystectomy, Crohn’s disease, Gallstone disease, Gallstones, Inflammatory bowel disease
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Journal Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Goet, J.C. (Jorn C.), Beelen, E.M.J. (Evelien M. J.), Biermann, K, Gijsbers, A.H. (Annette H.), Schouten, W.R, van der Woude, C.J, & de Vries, A.C. (Annemarie C.). (2018). Cholecystectomy Risk in Crohn’s Disease Patients After Ileal Resection: a Long-term Nationwide Cohort Study. Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery. doi:10.1007/s11605-018-4028-y