Background: Adjuvant intravesical instillations with bacillus Calmette-Gú erin (BCG) is the recommended treatment option for patients with intermediate-and high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Despite adequate BCG treatment, a large proportion of patients experience a recurrence. Although radical cystectomy is the gold standard for BCG unresponsive NMIBC, some patients are unfit or unwilling to consider this option.
Objective: To assess the effectiveness of Hyperthermic IntraVEsical Chemotherapy (HIVEC®) in BCG unresponsive NMIBC patients.
Methods: A post-hoc analysis was conducted of prospectively included intermediate-and high-risk NMIBC patients who were planned to receive HIVEC® treatment between October 2014 and November 2017. For the present analysis, only patients who met the BCG unresponsive definition were included. Patients were followed by cystoscopy and cytology every 3 months and a CT-urography scan yearly. The primary outcome was the disease-free survival (DFS). The Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) was used to assess side-effects.
Results: The study population consisted of 55 BCG unresponsive NMIBC patients of whom 52 underwent =5 HIVEC® treatments. The median age and follow-up were 73 years and 14.0 months (IQR 7.6-24.6). The median DFS was 17.7 months (SE 6.72) and progression occurred in four patients. The 1-year cumulative incidence rate of disease recurrence/progression was 53%. Two patients experienced severe side-effects (CTCAE = 3). Conclusions:
HIVEC® seems a valid treatment option for BCG unresponsive NMIBC patients. We report a median DFS of 17.7 months (SE 6.72), potentially avoiding or postponing the need for radical surgery in a proportion of these patients.

BCG, BCG unresponsive, bladder cancer, chemo-hyperthermia,
Bladder Cancer

de Jong, J.J, Hendricksen, K. (Kees), Rosier, M. (Marloes), Mostafid, H, & Boormans, J.L. (2018). Hyperthermic Intravesical Chemotherapy for BCG Unresponsive Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer Patients. Bladder Cancer, 4(4), 395–401. doi:10.3233/BLC-180191