BACKGROUND: The influenza H1N1 pandemic of 2009-2010, provided a unique opportunity to assess the course of disease, as well as the analysis of risk factors for severe disease in hospitalized children (< 18 years). METHODS: Retrospective national chart study on hospitalized children with H1N1 infection during the 2009-2010 pH1N1 outbreak. RESULTS: Nine hundred forty patients (56% boys), median age 3.0 years, were enrolled; the majority were previously healthy. Treatment consisted of supplemental oxygen (24%), mechanical ventilation (5%) and antiviral therapy (63%). Fifteen patients died (1.6%), 5 of whom were previously healthy. Multivariable analyses confirmed pre-existent heart and lung disease as risk factors for intensive care unit admission. Risk factors for mortality included children with a neurologic or oncologic disease and psychomotor retardation. CONCLUSIONS: This nationwide overview of hospitalized children confirms known risk groups for severe influenza infections. However, most of the acute and severe presentations of influenza occurred in previously healthy children.

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Journal The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Ahout, I.M.L. (Inge M L), Philipsen, R.L.A. (Ria L A), Las, M. (Mariëtte), Baysan, M. (Meryem), Brus, F, Rahamat-Langendoen, J.C. (Jeanette C.), … de Groot, R. (2018). Nationwide Study on the Course of Influenza A (H1N1) Infections in Hospitalized Children in the Netherlands During the Pandemic 2009-2010. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 37(12), e283–e291. doi:10.1097/INF.0000000000002177