Novobiocin (Albamycin, Cathamycin, Spheromycin) is an amin o coumarin antibiotic originally isolated from Streptomyces niveus (now recognized as a synonym for Streptomyces spheroides) in the Upjohn Research Laboratories and initially was given the generic name of streptonivicin (Smith et al., 1956). It was also isolated almost simultaneously in other laboratories (Pfizer, Merck, and Lepetit) and was given several other names. The chemical name of novobiocin sodium is 7-([2R,3R,4S,5R]-4-carbamoyloxy-3-hydroxy-5- methoxy-6, 6-dimethyloxan-2-yl)oxy-3-([4-hydroxy-3-{3- me thylbut-2-enyl}benzoyl ] amino)-8-me thyl - 2 - oxochromen-4-olate: the sugar novobiose, a coumarin residue, and a benzoic acid residue (Novobiocin sodium, 2008) (Figure 82.1). The empiric formula of the sodium formulation is C31H36N2NaO11 and the molecular weight is 634.2. Novobiocin inhibits the GyrB subunit of DNA gyrase and is primarily active against Gram-positive microorganisms. Its latest use included eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and other resistant microorganisms. In addition, it has been applied in cancer therapy (Eder et al., 1991; Ellis et al., 1991). The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has determined that albamycin (novobiocin sodium) 250-mg capsules were withdrawn from sale for reasons of safety or effectiveness and will not accept or approve abbreviated new drug applications for albamycin (novobiocin sodium) 250-mg capsules (Department of Health and Human Services, 2011).

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Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1201/9781315152110, hdl.handle.net/1765/112313
Citation
Mouton, J.W. (Johan W.). (2017). Novobiocin. In Kucers the Use of Antibiotics: A Clinical Review of Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, and Antiviral Drugs, Seventh Edition (pp. 1450–1453). doi:10.1201/9781315152110