Since the early 1980s, sacral nerve neuromodulation has been explored as a treatment for various voiding dysfunctions, such as urge incontinence, urge-frequency syndromes, urinary retention, and pelvic pain (1). In this context, the word neuromodulation means that patients who are refractory to conservative treatments are treated with continuous electrical stimulation of the sacral nerves. These patients first undergo percutaneous nerve evaluation to test the integrity of their sacral nerves (2).

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Bosch, J.L.H.R. (2001). Sacral nerve neuromodulation and its effects on urinary sphincter function. In The Urinary Sphincter (pp. 541–552). Retrieved from