Professional and ‘Amateur’ Antigen-Presenting Cells In Type 2 Immunity
Dendritic cells (DCs) are critical for the activation of naïve CD4+ T cells and are considered professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs), as are macrophages and B cells. Recently, several innate type 2 immune cells, such as basophils, mast cells (MCs), eosinophils, and innate type 2 lymphocytes (ILC2), have also emerged as harboring APC behavior. Through surface expression or transfer of peptide-loaded MHCII, expression of costimulatory and co-inhibitory molecules, as well as the secretion of polarizing cytokines, these innate cells can extensively communicate with effector and regulatory CD4+ T cells. An exciting new concept is that the complementary tasks of these ‘amateur’ APCs contribute to shaping and regulating adaptive immunity to allergens and helminths, often in collaboration with professional APCs.