Male hypogonadism is a condition that can develop in every phase of life, with a higher prevalence in ageing men. This review presents an update on many aspects of male hypogonadism with emphasis on diagnosis and treatment of adult-onset hypogonadism. Low androgen levels after puberty and throughout adulthood can affect quality of life with infertility, decrease of sexual functions, muscle mass, strength and vitality, low mood and self-esteem, decrease of cognitive functions, osteoporosis and a change of metabolism with hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance. These effects can occur in every man, but especially to man with obesity and diabetes type 2. Low testosterone is regarded as a marker for poor general health and is an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality. This review offers practical recommendations for urologists to recognize, diagnose and treat male hypogonadism and offers an overview of the indications and contraindications for testosterone therapy.

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Keywords adult-onset hypogonadism, late-onset hypogonadism, male hypogonadism, testosterone deficiency, testosterone therapy
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Journal Tijdschrift voor Urologie
Leliefeld, H.H.J, & Dohle, G.R. (2018). Male hypogonadism, an update Mannelijk hypogonadisme, een update. Tijdschrift voor Urologie, 8(8), 155–165. doi:10.1007/s13629-018-0235-2