Roks and Van Ruitenburg notice that while Dutch state agencies have long been reluctant toward using the gang label, as of 2013, groups of bikers are referred to as ‘outlaw motorcycle gangs’ (OMCGs). The authors touch upon different aspects of ‘gang talk’ in the Netherlands. After tracing the history of the application of the term in the Netherlands, they explore two additional dimensions of gang talk by drawing on the results of two empirical studies. First, they describe how the Dutch Rollin 200 Crips have actively sought out the gang label, rather than having it cast upon them by others. In addition, they show how some of the Dutch OMCGs referred to as gangs and criminal organizations have actively resisted these labels in both the media and court. Roks and Van Ruitenburg conclude with problematizing the usage of the gang label by various actors involved in gang talk in the Netherlands.,

Roks, R., & van Ruitenburg, T. (2018). Dutch Gang Talk: A Reflection on the Use of the Gang Label in the Netherlands. In Outlaw Motorcycle Clubs and Street Gangs. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-76120-6_4