Objective To compare vitamin D status in women with PCOS versus fertile women and subsequently evaluate the association between vitamin D status and metabolic disturbances in PCOS women. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional comparison study of 639 women with PCOS and 449 fertile women. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was stratified into a severe deficient (< 25 nmol/l), insufficient (25–50 nmol/l), moderate (50–75 nmol/l) and adequate (> 75 nmol/l) status. The main outcome measures were the difference in vitamin D status between PCOS and fertile women, and the association between serum 25(OH)D and metabolic disturbances in PCOS women only. Results Serum 25(OH)D was significantly lower in PCOS women compared to fertile controls (mean 25(OH)D of 49.0 nmol/l versus 64.5 nmol/l). An adjusted significant difference was seen between serum 25(OH)D and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) (β = 0.76; 95% CI: 0.63–0.91; p < 0.01), HDL-cholesterol (β = 0.20; 95% CI: 0.05–0.60, p < 0.01) and apolipoprotein A1 (β = 26.2; 95% CI: 7.5–45.0, p < 0.01) between the highest vitamin D group compared to the lowest vitamin D group. Conclusions This study demonstrates that women with PCOS have a significantly lower serum 25(OH)D compared to fertile controls. A compromised vitamin D status in PCOS women is associated with a higher HOMA-IR and an unfavourable lipid profile. Large randomized controlled trials are necessary to explore the causality of this linkage.

Additional Metadata
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0204748, hdl.handle.net/1765/112870
Journal PLoS ONE
Krul-Poel, Y.H.M, Koenders, P.P. (P. P.), Steegers-Theunissen, R.P. (R. P.), ten Boekel, E. (E.), ter Wee, M.M. (M. M.), Louwers, Y.V, … Simsek, S. (S.). (2018). Vitamin D and metabolic disturbances in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): A cross-sectional study. PLoS ONE, 13(12). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0204748