The majority of children and adults with Pompe disease in the population of European descent carry the leaky splicing GAA variant c.-32-13T>G (IVS1) in combination with a fully deleterious GAA variant on the second allele. The phenotypic spectrum of this patient group is exceptionally broad, with symptom onset ranging from early infancy to late adulthood. In addition, the response to enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) varies between patients. The insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) has been suggested to be a modifier of disease onset and/or response to ERT. Here, we have investigated the effect of the ACE I/D polymorphism in a relatively large cohort of 131 children and adults with Pompe disease, of whom 112 were followed during treatment with ERT for 5 years. We assessed the use of wheelchair and mechanical ventilation, muscle strength assessed via manual muscle testing and hand-held dynamometry (HHD), distance walked on the six-minute walk test (6MWT), forced vital capacity (FVC) in sitting and supine position and daily-life activities assessed by R-PAct. Cross sectional analysis at first visit showed no differences between the genotypes with respect to age at first symptoms, diagnosis, wheelchair use, or ventilator use. Also response to ERT over 5 years assessed by linear mixed model analyses showed no significant differences between ACE groups for any of the outcome measures. The patient cohort contained 24 families with 54 siblings. Differences in ACE genotype could neither explain inter nor intra familial differences. We conclude that the ACE I/D polymorphism does not explain the large variation in disease severity and response to ERT observed among Pompe patients with the same c.-32-13T>G GAA variant.

Additional Metadata
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0208854, hdl.handle.net/1765/113083
Journal PLoS ONE
Citation
Kuperus, E, van der Meijden, J.C, In’t Groen, S.L.M. (Stijn L.M.), Kroos, M.A, Hoogeveen-Westerveld, M, Rizopoulos, D, … Pijnappel, W.W.M.P. (W.W.M. Pim). (2018). The ACE I/D polymorphism does not explain heterogeneity of natural course and response to enzyme replacement therapy in Pompe disease. PLoS ONE, 13(12). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0208854