Uridine adenosine tetraphosphate (Up4A), biosynthesized by activation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) 2, was initially identified as a potent endothelium-derived vasoconstrictor in perfused rat kidney. Subsequently, the effect of Up4A on vascular tone regulation was intensively investigated in arteries isolated from different vascular beds in rodents including rat pulmonary arteries, aortas, mesenteric and renal arteries as well as mouse aortas, in which Up4A produces vascular contraction. In contrast, Up4A produces vascular relaxation in porcine coronary small arteries and rat aortas. Intravenous infusion of Up4A into conscious rats or mice decreases blood pressure, and intravenous bolus injection of Up4A into anesthetized mice increases coronary blood flow, indicating an overall vasodilator influence in vivo. Although Up4A is the first dinucleotide described that contains both purine and pyrimidine moieties, its cardiovascular effects are exerted mainly through activation of purinergic receptors. These effects not only encompass regulation of vascular tone, but also endothelial angiogenesis, smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration, and vascular calcification. Furthermore, this review discusses a potential role for Up4A in cardiovascular pathophysiology, as plasma levels of Up4A are elevated in juvenile hypertensive patients and Up4A-mediated vascular purinergic signaling changes in cardiovascular disease such as hypertension, diabetes, atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction. Better understanding the vascular effect of the novel dinucleotide Up4A and the purinergic signaling mechanisms mediating its effects will enhance its potential as target for treatment of cardiovascular disease.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Cardiovascular disease, Purinergic receptor, Up4A, Vascular function
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2018.12.009, hdl.handle.net/1765/113388
Journal Pharmacological Research
Citation
Zhou, Z, Matsumoto, T. (Takayuki), Jankowski, J.A, Pernow, J. (John), Mustafa, S.J. (S. Jamal), Duncker, D.J.G.M, & Merkus, D. (2019). Uridine adenosine tetraphosphate and purinergic signaling in cardiovascular system: An update. Pharmacological Research (Vol. 141, pp. 32–45). doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2018.12.009