Triphalangeal thumb is a rare congenital anomaly in which the thumb has three phalanges. Clinical presentation of triphalangeal thumb can vary considerably and can be present in both hands or unilateral. The thumb can be long with a finger-like appearance. The presence of clinodactyly depends on the shape of the extra phalanx varying from wedge-shaped to rectangular. Various joints, ligaments, muscles, and tendons of the first ray can be hypoplastic or absent, with varying degrees of stiffness or instability. The aim of surgical treatment is to reconstruct or correct the anatomic anomalies to obtain greater function and a more acceptable appearance. In our series, operations varied from removal of the delta phalanx with ligament reconstruction to multiple osteotomies and rebalancing of soft tissues. Results in these often complex cases can be rewarding if the surgeon has sufficient knowledge of the underlying anatomic differences. This review summarizes our current concepts of presentation and management of the triphalangeal thumb.

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Journal of Hand Surgery (European Volume)
Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

Hovius, S., Potuijt, J.W.P. (Jacob W. P.), & van Nieuwenhoven, C. (2019). Triphalangeal thumb: clinical features and treatment. Journal of Hand Surgery (European Volume) (Vol. 44, pp. 69–79). doi:10.1177/1753193418797922