Background: Accurate measurement of preoperative anxiety is important for pediatric surgical patients’ care as well as for monitoring anxiety-reducing interventions. The modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale-short form is well validated for this purpose in children aged 2 years and above, but not in younger children. Aims: We aimed to validate the Dutch version of the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale-short form for measuring preoperative anxiety in children less than 2 years old. Methods: Two investigators independently assessed infants’ anxiety at the holding area and during induction of anesthesia with the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale-short form and the COMFORT-Behavior scale—live and from video observations. Construct validity and responsiveness of both scales were tested with Pearson correlation coefficient. Internal consistency of the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale-short form was assessed using Cronbach's α, and inter-rater reliability and intra-rater reliability were tested using the intraclass correlation coefficient and Cohen's linearly weighted kappa. Hypotheses for sufficient inter-rater reliability (r > 0.60) and validity (r > 0.65) had been formulated a priori in line with the COSMIN guidelines. Results: Behavior of 129 infants (89.1% male) with a median age of 6.5 months (range 0.9-16.5 months) was observed. The correlations between the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale-short form and COMFORT-Behavioral scale were strong at the holding area and at induction of anesthesia, as were the correlation of change scores between the holding area and induction. Internal consistency of the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale-short form was excellent at both the holding area and at induction of anesthesia. Inter-rater reliability was good to excellent on scale level and moderate to good on item level. Conclusion: These findings support the validity and reliability of the Dutch version of the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale-short form in children less than 2-years-old.

Additional Metadata
Keywords anesthesia, anxiety, child behavior, infant, preoperative, reproducibility of results, validation studies
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1111/pan.13536, hdl.handle.net/1765/113530
Journal Paediatric Anaesthesia
Citation
Kühlmann, A.Y.R, Lahdo, N. (Nisson), Staals, L.M, & van Dijk, M. (2018). What are the validity and reliability of the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale-Short Form in children less than 2 years old?. Paediatric Anaesthesia. doi:10.1111/pan.13536