Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) are characterized by an increased risk of infections, autoimmunity, autoinflammation, malignancy, and allergic disorders. Skin disorders are also common clinical features in PIDs and may be among the presenting manifestations. Recognition of specific PID-associated skin conditions in combination with other clinical features as described in the currently used warning signs could raise suspicion of an underlying PID. We aimed to provide a systematically obtained overview of skin disorders and their prevalence in PIDs. Secondary, the prevalence of Staphylococcus (S.) aureus–associated skin disorders and atopy was reviewed, as these are the most prominent skin features in PIDs. A systematic search was performed in EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cochrane, and Google Scholar (up to May 9, 2018). All original observational and experimental human studies that address the presence of skin disorders in PIDs were selected. We rated study quality using the Institute of Health Economics Quality Appraisal Checklist for Case Series Studies. Sixty-seven articles (5030 patients) were included. Study quality ranged from 18.2% to 88.5%. A broad spectrum of skin disorders was reported in 30 PIDs, mostly in single studies with a low number of included patients. An overview of associated PIDs per skin disorder was generated. Data on S. aureus-associated skin disorders and atopy in PIDs were limited. In conclusion, skin disorders are prominent features in PIDs. Through clustering of PIDs per skin disorder, we provide a support tool to use in clinical practice that should raise awareness of PIDs based on presenting skin manifestations.

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Department of Dermatology

de Wit, J., Brada, R., van Veldhuizen, J., Dalm, V., & Pasmans, S. (2018). Skin disorders are prominent features in primary immunodeficiency diseases. Allergy. doi:10.1111/all.13681