Background: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has been established as an alternative treatment option to coronary artery by-pass graft (CABG) surgery in patients with left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD). Whether the findings of randomized controlled trials are applicable to a real-world patient population is unclear. Methods: We compared the outcomes of PCI with new-generation DES in the all-comer, international, multicenter DELTA-2 registry retrospectively evaluating mid-term clinical outcomes with the historical CABG cohort enrolled in the DELTA-1 registry according to the EXCEL key inclusion or exclusion criteria. The primary endpoint was the composite of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke at the median time of follow-up time of 501 days. The consistency of the effect of DELTA-2 PCI versus DELTA-1 CABG according to the EXCEL enrollment criteria was tested using propensity score-adjusted Cox regression models. Results: Out of 3986 patients enrolled in the DELTA-2 PCI registry, 2418 were EXCEL candidates and 1568 were not EXCEL candidates. The occurrence of the primary endpoint was higher among non-EXCEL candidates compared with EXCEL candidates (15.4% vs. 6.9%; hazard ratio 2.52; 95% confidence interval 2.00–3.16; p < 0.001). Among 901 patients enrolled in the historical DELTA-1 CABG cohort, 471 were EXCEL candidates and 430 were not EXCEL candidates. When comparing the DELTA-2 PCI with the DELTA-1 CABG cohort, the occurrence of the primary endpoint was lower in the PCI group compared with the historical CABG cohort among EXCEL candidates (6.9% vs. 10.7%; adjusted hazard ratio: 0.65; 95% confidence interval: 0.45–0.92), while no significant difference was observed among non-EXCEL candidates (15.4% vs. 12.5%; adjusted hazard ratio: 0.94; 95% confidence interval: 0.67–1.33) with evidence of statistical interaction (adjusted interaction p-value = 0.002). Conclusions: In a real-world population, PCI can be selected more favorably as an alternative to CABG in patients fulfilling the enrollment criteria of the EXCEL trial.

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International Journal of Cardiology
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam