At present, treatment of potentially curable oesophageal cancer includes neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy followed by oesophagectomy. Alternatively, neoadjuvant chemotherapy is used. To date, strong evidence on the superiority of one modality over the other has not been provided. Currently, up to one-third of patients show a pathologically complete response after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. To optimise the efficacy of neoadjuvant treatment for individual patients, prediction of response to neoadjuvant treatment is highly desired. Therefore, several clinical diagnostic modalities have been investigated for early response evaluation, of which positron emission tomography (PET) has been studied most extensively. To identify patients who might benefit from postponing or even omitting surgery, recent advances have been made in evaluating response after completion of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. This review provides an overview of current evidence and recent advances in neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for oesophageal cancer and discusses the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy compared to chemoradiotherapy. Moreover, clinical response evaluation to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is reviewed.

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Keywords Chemoradiotherapy, Chemotherapy, Oesophageal cancer, Response evaluation, Response prediction
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Journal Best Practice and Research in Clinical Gastroenterology
Eyck, B.M, van der Wilk, B.J. (B. J.), Lagarde, S.M, Wijnhoven, B.P.L, Valkema, R, Spaander, M.C.W, … van Lanschot, J.J.B. (2018). Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for resectable oesophageal cancer. Best Practice and Research in Clinical Gastroenterology (Vol. 36–37, pp. 37–44). doi:10.1016/j.bpg.2018.11.007