Background: Smoking is the leading cause of premature mortality and morbidity. This study aimed at assessing the impact of smoking on life expectancy (LE) and LE with (LED) and without disability (DFLE). We further estimated the contribution of disability and mortality and their causes to differences in LED and DFLE by smoking. Methods: Data on disability, chronic conditions, and smoking from 17 148 participants of the 1997, 2001, 2004 Belgian Health Interview Surveys were used to estimate causes of disability using the attribution method. A 10-year mortality follow-up of survey participants was used. The Sullivan method was applied to estimate LED and DFLE. The contribution of disability and mortality and of causes of disability and death to smoking differences in LED and DFLE was assessed using decomposition methods. Results: Never smokers live longer than daily smokers. DFLE advantage at age 15 of +8.5/+4.3 years (y) in men/women never compared with daily smokers was the result of lower mortality (+6.2y/+3y) and lower disability (2.3y/1.3y). The extra 0.3y/1.6y LED in never smokers was due to lower mortality (+2.6y/+2.9y) and lower disability (-2.3y/-1.3y). Lower mortality from lung/larynx/trachea cancer, chronic respiratory, and ischaemic heart diseases was the main contributor to higher LED and DFLE in never smokers. Lower disability from musculoskeletal conditions in men and chronic respiratory diseases in women increased LED and DFLE in never smokers. Conclusions: Mortality and disability advantage among never smokers contributed to longer DFLE, while mortality advantage contributed to their longer LED.,
European Journal of Public Health
Department of Public Health

Yokota, R.T.C. (Renata T C), Nusselder, W.J. (Willma J.), Robine, J.-M., Tafforeau, J., Charafeddine, R., Gisle, L. (Lydia), … van Oyen, H. (2018). Contribution of chronic conditions to smoking differences in life expectancy with and without disability in Belgium. European Journal of Public Health, 28(5), 859–863. doi:10.1093/eurpub/cky101