Background and purpose: Planned doses are used as surrogate for the actually delivered dose in radiotherapy. We have estimated the delivered dose in a dose-escalation trial of locally advanced prostate cancer by statistical dose-accumulation and by DVH-summation, and compared to planned dose. Materials and method: Prescribed dose-escalation to the prostate was 67.5 Gy/25fr., corresponding to 81GyEQD2 assuming α/β = 1.5. The 21 patients had three targets (i.e. CTV67.5 + 2 mm, CTV60 + 5 mm, CTV50 + 10 mm) irradiated by a simultaneous-integrated-boost technique. Analysis was based on 213 CT scans and 5-years of follow-up. For statistical dose-accumulation, we modelled 10 000 possible treatment courses based on planned dose and deformation-vector-fields from contour-based registration. For DVH-summation we recalculated dose on repeat-CTs and estimated median D98%/EUD. Groups with/without disease recurrence were compared. Results: Discrepancies between planned and accumulated dose were mostly seen for CTV67.5, where under-dosage was found at different locations in the prostate in 12/21 patients. Delivered dose-escalation (D98%) was on average 73.9GyEQD2 (range: 68.3–78.7GyEQD2). No significant difference in accumulated-D98% was found in patients with (n = 8) and without (n = 13) recurrence (p > 0.05). Average D98%/EUD with statistical dose-accumulation vs DVH-summation was significantly different in CTV60, CTV50, rectum and bladder but not in CTV67.5. Conclusion: The planned dose escalation was not received by more than half-of-the patients. Robustness of the prostate target (CTV67.5) should therefore be better prioritized in these patients given the low toxicity profile. Estimates of delivered dose were less conservative for dose-accumulation due to interaction of random organ motion with the dose matrix.

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Keywords Dose accumulation, Image-guided, Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), Organ motion, Prostate, Robustness
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Journal Radiotherapy & Oncology
Hysing, L.B, Ekanger, C, Zolnay, A.G, Helle, S.I, Rasi, M, Heijmen, B.J.M, … Thörnqvist, S. (2018). Statistical motion modelling for robust evaluation of clinically delivered accumulated dose distributions after curative radiotherapy of locally advanced prostate cancer. Radiotherapy & Oncology, 128(2), 327–335. doi:10.1016/j.radonc.2018.06.004