Purpose/objective: Assess to what extent the use of automated treatment planning would have reduced organ-at-risk dose delivery observed in the randomized HYPRO trial for prostate cancer, and estimate related toxicity reductions. Investigate to what extent improved plan quality for hypofractionation scheme as achieved with automated planning can potentially reduce observed enhanced toxicity for the investigated hypofractionation scheme to levels observed for conventional fractionation scheme. Material/methods: For 725 trial patients, VMAT plans were generated with an algorithm for automated multi-criterial plan generation (autoVMAT). All clinically delivered plans (CLINICAL), generated with commonly applied interactive trial-and-error planning were also available for the investigations. Analyses were based on dose-volume histograms (DVH) and predicted normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP) for late gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Results: Compared to CLINICAL, autoVMAT plans had similar or higher PTV coverage, while large and statistically significant OAR sparing was achieved. Mean doses in the rectum, anus and bladder were reduced by 7.8 ± 4.7 Gy, 7.9 ± 6.0 Gy and 4.2 ± 2.9 Gy, respectively (p < 0.001). NTCPs for late grade ≥2 GI toxicity, rectal bleeding and stool incontinence were reduced from 23.3 ± 9.1% to 19.7 ± 8.9%, from 9.7 ± 2.8% to 8.2 ± 2.8%, and from 16.8 ± 8.5% to 13.1 ± 7.2%, respectively (p < 0.001). Reductions in rectal bleeding NTCP were observed for all published Equivalent Uniform Dose volume parameters, n. AutoVMAT allowed hypofractionation with predicted toxicity similar to conventional fractionation with CLINICAL plans. Conclusion: Compared to CLINICAL, autoVMAT had superior plan quality, with meaningful NTCP reductions for both conventional fractionation and hypofractionation schemes. AutoVMAT plans might reduce toxicity for hypofractionation to levels that were clinically observed (and accepted) for conventional fractionation. This may be relevant when considering clinical use of the investigated hypofractionation schedule with relatively high fraction dose (3.4 Gy).

Additional Metadata
Keywords Automated planning, IMRT, NTCP, Prostate cancer, Toxicity, VMAT
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2018.05.028, hdl.handle.net/1765/114052
Journal Radiotherapy & Oncology
Citation
Sharfo, A.W.M, Dirkx, M.L.P, Bijman, R.G, Schillemans, W, Breedveld, S, Aluwini, S, … Heijmen, B.J.M. (2018). Late toxicity in the randomized multicenter HYPRO trial for prostate cancer analyzed with automated treatment planning. Radiotherapy & Oncology, 128(2), 349–356. doi:10.1016/j.radonc.2018.05.028