There is widespread agreement that the local level has become more self-confident and self-reliant in formulating its own immigrant policies and sometimes developing distinct philosophies of immigrant incorporation. However, to date we know little about the actual capacities of cities to implement these philosophies consistently. This article offers a level-specific study of the governance of immigrant incorporation by European municipalities. It focuses on cities with diversity policies and it compares the meaning of diversity in formulated policies with policy implementation. Identifying an implementation gap of diversity policies in Antwerp, Amsterdam and Leeds, it argues that cities may have become more self-reliant and self-confident in coming up with their own ideas and concepts for governing immigration, but this may not mean that they also consistently implement these ideas. This article identifies two explanations for an implementation gap and different capacities across cities to consistently implement such policies.

Additional Metadata
Keywords cities, diversity, implementation, organization, policy, post-multicultural
Persistent URL hdl.handle.net/1765/114204
Journal International Review of Administrative Sciences: an international journal of comparative public administration
Citation
Schiller, M. (2017). The implementation trap: the local level and the backlash against diversity. International Review of Administrative Sciences: an international journal of comparative public administration. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1765/114204