Some biomarkers for functioning and non-functioning neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are currently available. Despite their application in clinical practice, results should be interpreted cautiously. Considering the variable sensitivity and specificity of these parameters, there is an unmet need for novel biomarkers to impr ove diagnosis and predict patient outcome. Nowadays, several new biomarkers are being evaluated and may become future tools for the management of NENs. These bioma rkers include (1) peptides and growth factors; (2) DNA and RNA markers based on g enomics analysis, for example, the so-called NET test, which has been developed for a nalyzing gene transcripts in circulating blood; (3) circulating tumor/endothelial/progenitor cells or cell-free tumor DNA, which represent minimally invasive methods that would provide additional information for monitoring treatment response and (4) improved imaging techniques with novel radiolabeled somatostatin analogs or peptides. Below we summarize some future directions in the development of novel diagnostic and predictive/prognostic biomarkers in NENs. This review is focused on circulating and s elected tissue markers.

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Endocrine - Related Cancer
Department of Internal Medicine

Herrera-Martínez, A.D, Hofland, L.J, Gálvez Moreno, M.A, Castaño, J.P, de Herder, W.W, & Feelders, R.A. (2019). Neuroendocrine neoplasms: current and potential diagnostic, predictive and prognostic markers. Endocrine - Related Cancer, 26(3), R157–R179. doi:10.1530/erc-18-0354