The worldwide increase in the number of patients with end-stage renal disease leads to a growing waiting list for kidney transplantation resulting from the scarcity of kidney donors. Therefore, alternative treatment options for patients with endstage renal disease are being sought. In vitro differentiation of stem cells into renal tissue is a promising approach to repair nonfunctional kidney tissue. Impressive headway has been made in the use of stem cells with the use of adult renal progenitor cells, embryonic stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells for the development toward primitive kidney structures. Currently, efforts are directed at improving long-term maintenance and stability of the cells. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the cell sources used for the generation of kidney cells and strategies used for transplantation in in vivo models. Furthermore, it provides a perspective on stability and safety during future clinical application of in vitro generated kidney cells.