Growing up among cultures: Intercultural competences, personality, and leadership styles of Third Culture Kids.
The world seems to be increasingly in demand of global leaders with a transformational leadership style who do business across borders with intercultural ease. To identify such leaders, this study explores whether third culture kids (TCKs) (n = 121) compared to non-TCKs (n = 116) exhibit a stronger set of multicultural personality traits and intercultural competences, and whether TCKs compared to non-TCKs, via their multicultural personality traits and intercultural competences, prefer transformational leadership more. Results from group comparisons indicated that TCKs display more intercultural sensitivity than non-TCKs. Parallel mediated regression analyses showed that being a TCK, compared to not being a TCK, had a positive indirect effect on their preference for transformational leadership through open-mindedness, while it had a negative indirect effect on their preference for transformational leadership through flexibility and emotional stability.
|Keywords||TCKs, third culture kids, transformational leadership, multicultural personality traits, intercultural competences, growing up in different cultures, mediated regression analysis.|
|Journal||European Journal of International Management|
de Waal, M.F., & Born, M.Ph. (2019). Growing up among cultures: Intercultural competences, personality, and leadership styles of Third Culture Kids. European Journal of International Management, in press. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1765/115313