The world seems to be increasingly in demand of global leaders with a transformational leadership style who do business across borders with intercultural ease. To identify such leaders, this study explores whether third culture kids (TCKs) (n = 121) compared to non-TCKs (n = 116) exhibit a stronger set of multicultural personality traits and intercultural competences, and whether TCKs compared to non-TCKs, via their multicultural personality traits and intercultural competences, prefer transformational leadership more. Results from group comparisons indicated that TCKs display more intercultural sensitivity than non-TCKs. Parallel mediated regression analyses showed that being a TCK, compared to not being a TCK, had a positive indirect effect on their preference for transformational leadership through open-mindedness, while it had a negative indirect effect on their preference for transformational leadership through flexibility and emotional stability.

Additional Metadata
Keywords TCKs, third culture kids, transformational leadership, multicultural personality traits, intercultural competences, growing up in different cultures, mediated regression analysis.
Persistent URL hdl.handle.net/1765/115313
Journal European Journal of International Management
Citation
de Waal, M.F., & Born, M.Ph. (2019). Growing up among cultures: Intercultural competences, personality, and leadership styles of Third Culture Kids. European Journal of International Management, in press. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1765/115313