Improving mid-career MPA programs
In this contribution I want to reflect on how programs can be developed and shaped in order to maximize their contribution to this ambition. I suspect that many programs are de-signed in an enlightened supply oriented mode. That is, they do not reflect so much what the staff of the teaching institution have to offer, but what staff or program managers think to be useful for the this category of students. In these ideas two elements may be distinguished. On the one hand there is a more or less articulated image of what students should know, under-stand and be able to by the end of the program. On the other hand there are implicit and ex-plicit ideas about how the teaching can be shaped and learning can be facilitated.