This study examined the associations between children’s early life experiences with parents, ego resiliency and ego undercontrol, and peer group social status in a longitudinal, multimethod study from infancy to middle childhood. Participants were 129 children (52% boys) who were followed from 15 months of age to 9 years and their primary caregivers from the Nijmegen Longitudinal Study on Infant and Child Development. The measurements included observations of parent–child interaction, teacher ratings of ego resiliency and ego undercontrol, and peer-reported social status. Quality of parental interactive behavior was associated with ego resiliency and ego undercontrol. Ego resiliency and ego undercontrol were uniquely related to preference and popularity. The findings provide insight into the developmental pathways leading to the two distinct types of social status.

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Journal Child Development
van den Berg, Y.W.M.M, Deutz, M.H.F, Smeekens, S, & Cillessen, A.H.N. (2017). Developmental pathways to preference and popularity in middle childhood. Child Development, 88, 1629–1641. doi:10.1111/cdev.12706