Background: Stigma is associated with health conditions that drive disease burden in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), including HIV, tuberculosis, mental health problems, epilepsy, and substance use disorders. However, the literature discussing the relationship between stigma and health outcomes is largely fragmented within disease-specific siloes, thus limiting the identification of common moderators or mechanisms through which stigma potentiates adverse health outcomes as well as the development of broadly relevant stigma mitigation interventions.
Methods: We conducted a scoping review to provide a critical overview of the breadth of research on stigma for each of the five aforementioned conditions in LMICs, including their methodological strengths and limitations.
Results: Across the range of diseases and disorders studied, stigma is associated with poor health outcomes, including help- and treatment-seeking behaviors. Common methodological limitations include a lack of prospective studies, non-representative samples resulting in limited generalizability, and a dearth of data on mediators and moderators of the relationship between stigma and health outcomes.
Conclusions: Implementing effective stigma mitigation interventions at scale necessitates transdisciplinary longitudinal studies that examine how stigma potentiates the risk for adverse outcomes for high-burden health conditions in community-based samples in LMICs.

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Keywords Stigma, Low- and middle-income countries, HIV, Tuberculosis, Epilepsy, Depression, Substance use, Scoping review
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Kane, J.C. (Jeremy C.), Elafros, M.A. (Melissa A.), Murray, S.M. (Sarah M.), Mitchell, E.M.H, Augustinavicius, J.L. (Jura L.), Causevic, S. (Sara), & Baral, S.D. (Stefan D.). (2019). A scoping review of health-related stigma outcomes for high-burden diseases in low- and middle-income countries. doi:10.1186/s12916-019-1250-8