- OBJECTIVE: To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to assess the safety and feasibility of a modified encephalo-galeo-duro-synangiosis operation in patients with atherosclerotic carotid artery occlusion. - METHODS: Eight patients who had experienced new ipsilateral cerebrovascular events after the diagnosis of carotid artery occlusion were recruited. To facilitate extracranial-to-intracranial collateralization, 5 or 6 burr holes were made, and the dura mater and arachnoid were opened. The patients were closely monitored for complications and underwent conventional angiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and 1 year of follow-up. After 10 years, the patients who were still alive were interviewed and assessed for functional outcomes and neurological status. - RESULTS: No surgery-related adverse events were observed, apart from temporary headache and subcutaneous effusion. Four of six patients had developed an extracranial-to-intracranial collateral blood vessels on angiography, and these patients had no incident ischemic events during the follow-up period. During the long-term follow-up period (10 years), 3 patients had died. Of those living, 4 of the 5 patients reported total resolution of the symptoms, with no incident ischemic events. One patient still experienced disability from an ischemic stroke that occurred as a result of the 1-year follow-up angiography. - CONCLUSIONS: Encephalo-duro-galeo-synangiosis for symptomatic carotid occlusion seems to be safe and feasible and might be able to induce extracranial-tointracranial collaterals in patients with carotid artery occlusion. Further studies are needed to define the optimal therapeutic window and yield of burr hole surgery in the treatment of symptomatic carotid occlusive disease as an adjuvant to extracranialeintracranial bypass.

Additional Metadata
Keywords -Atherosclerosis- Carotid artery occlusion- Collateral circulation- Critical perfusion- Encephalo-duro-galeo-synangiosis - Hypoperfusion
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2018.12.063, hdl.handle.net/1765/116074
Journal World Neurosurgery
Volovici, V., van Dijk, E.J, van der Lugt, A, Koudstaal, P.J, & Vincent, A.J.P.E. (2019). A Modified Encephalo-Duro-Synangiosis Technique Induced Neovascularization in Symptomatic Atherosclerotic Carotid Artery Occlusion: A Phase I trial. World Neurosurgery, 124, E176–E181. doi:10.1016/j.wneu.2018.12.063