Background: Several studies have reported changes in electrocardiographic variables after atrial septal defect (ASD) closure. However no temporal electro-and vectorcardiographic changes have been described from acute to long-term follow-up at different ages. We aimed to study electrical remodeling after percutaneous ASD closure in pediatric and adult patients. Methods: ECGs of 69 children and 75 adults (median age 6 [IQR 4–11] years and 45 [IQR 33–54] years, respectively) were retrospectively selected before percutaneous ASD closure and at acute (1–7 days), intermediate (4–14 weeks) and late (6–18 months) follow-up. Apart from electrocardiographic variables, spatial QRS-T angle and ventricular gradient (VG) were derived from mathematically-synthesized vectorcardiograms. Results: In both pediatric and adult patients, the heart rate decreased immediately post-closure, which persisted to late follow-up. The P-wave amplitude also decreased acutely post-closure, but remained unchanged at later follow-up. The PQ duration shortened immediately in children and at intermediate follow-up in adults. The QRS duration and QTc interval decreased at intermediate-term follow-up in both children and adults. In both groups the spatial QRS-T angle decreased at late follow-up. The VG magnitude increased at intermediate follow-up in children and at late follow-up in adults, after an initial decrease in children. Conclusion: In both pediatric and adult ASD patients, electrocardiographic changes mainly occurred directly after ASD closure except for shortening of QRS duration and QTc interval, which occurred at later follow-up. Adults also showed late changes in PQ duration. At 6-to-18 month post-closure, the spatial QRS-T angle decreased, reflecting increased electrocardiographic concordance. The initial acute decrease in VG in children, which was followed by a significant increase, may be the effect of action potential duration dynamics directly after percutaneous ASD closure.

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Keywords Atrial septal defect, Electrocardiography, Vectorcardiography, Ventricular gradient, QRS-T angle
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Journal International Journal of Cardiology
Kamphuis, V.P., Nassif, M., Man, S.C, Swenne, C.A, Kors, J.A, Vink, A.S., … Blom, N.A. (2019). Electrical remodeling after percutaneous atrial septal defect closure in pediatric and adult patients. International Journal of Cardiology, 285, 32–39. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2019.02.020