The lack of sophisticated in vitro models limits our current understanding of gastrointestinal functions in farm animals. Conventional 2D cell lines or primary cells fail to recapitulate the physiology of in vivo intestinal epithelium. In contrast stem cell-derived, nontransformed 3D enteroids partially recreate the villus-crypt anatomy of the native intestine and comprise most if not all intestinal cell types including enterocytes, enteroendocrine cells, goblet cells, Paneth cells, and stem cells. This review summarizes the techniques used for generating and culturing enteroids of various farm animal species, focuses on important factors influencing the longevity of enteroids, and provides an overview of their current applications in modeling veterinary pathogens and in developing chemicals and bioactives for treating animal disease and improving production performance. It also mentions current limitations of enteroid models and potential solutions and highlights the opportunities for using these enteroids as a platform in studies regarding veterinary sciences and animal nutrition.

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Journal Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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Yin, Y, Guo, S.G., Wan, D., Wu, X, & Yin, Y.L. (2019). Enteroids: Promising in Vitro Models for Studies of Intestinal Physiology and Nutrition in Farm Animals. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 67(9), 2421–2428. doi:10.1021/acs.jafc.8b06908