Specifically, the classic presentation of female patients with recurrent paragangliomas (PGLs), polycythemia (at birth or in early childhood), and duodenal somatostatinomas has been described. Studies have demonstrated that somatic HIF2A mutations occur as postzygotic events and some to be associated with somatic mosaicism affecting hematopoietic and other tissue precursors. This phenomenon could explain the development of early onset of polycythemia in the absence of erythropoietin-secreting tumors. METHODS: Correlation analysis was performed between mosaicism of HIF2A mutant patients and clinical presentations. RESULTS: Somatic HIF2A mutations (p.A530V, p.P531S, and p.D539N) were identified in DNA extracted from PGLs of 3 patients. No somatic mosaicism was detected through deep sequencing of blood genomic DNA. Compared with classic syndrome, both polycythemia and PGL in all 3 patients developed at an advanced age with polycythemia at age 30, 30, and 17 years and PGLs at age 34, 30, and 55 years, respectively. Somatostatinomas were not detected, and 2 patients had ophthalmic findings. The biochemical phenotype in all 3 patients was noradrenergic with 18F-fluorodopa PET/CT as the most sensitive imaging modality. All patients demonstrated multiplicity, and none developed metastatic disease. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that newer techniques need to be developed to detect somatic mosaicism in patients with this syndrome. Absence of HIF2A mosaicism in patients with somatic HIF2A mutations supports association with late onset of the disease, milder clinical phenotype, and an improved prognosis compared with patients who have HIF2A mosaicism

Additional Metadata
Keywords PPGL, hypoxia-inducible factor 2α, mosaicism, polycythemia, Pacak-Zhuang syndrome.
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.31839, hdl.handle.net/1765/116222
Journal Cancer
Pang, Y., Gupta, G., Jha, A.K, Yue, X.P., Wang, H.R., Huynh, TT, … Pacak, K. (2019). Nonmosaic somatic HIF2A mutations associated with late onset polycythemia-paraganglioma syndrome: Newly recognized subclass of polycythemia-paraganglioma syndrome. Cancer, 125(8), 1258–1266. doi:10.1002/cncr.31839