Introduction: Over 70% of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are classified as mild (mTBI), which present heterogeneously. Associations between pre-injury comorbidities and outcomes are not well-understood, and understanding their status as risk factors may improve mTBI management and prognostication. Methods: mTBI subjects (GCS 13–15) from TRACK-TBI Pilot completing 3- and 6-month functional [Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE)] and post-concussive outcomes [Acute Concussion Evaluation (ACE) physical/cognitive/sleep/emotional subdomains] were extracted. Pre-injury comorbidities >10% incidence were included in regressions for functional disability (GOSE ≤ 6) and post-concussive symptoms by subdomain. Odds ratios (OR) and mean differences (B) were reported. Significance was assessed at p < 0.0083 (Bonferroni correction). Results: In 260 subjects sustaining blunt mTBI, mean age was 44.0-years and 70.4% were male. Baseline comorbidities >10% incidence included psychiatric-30.0%, cardiac (hypertension)-23.8%, cardiac (structural/valvular/ischemic)-20.4%, gastrointestinal15.8%, pulmonary-15.0%, and headache/migraine-11.5%. At 3- and 6-months separately, 30.8% had GOSE ≤ 6. At 3-months, psychiatric (GOSE ≤ 6: OR = 2.75, 95% CI [1.44–5.27]; ACE-physical: B = 1.06 [0.38–1.73]; ACE-cognitive: B = 0.72 [0.26–1.17]; ACE-sleep: B = 0.46 [0.17–0.75]; ACE-emotional: B = 0.64 [0.25–1.03]), headache/migraine (GOSE ≤ 6: OR = 4.10 [1.67–10.07]; ACE-sleep: B = 0.57 [0.15–1.00]; ACE-emotional: B = 0.92 [0.35–1.49]), and gastrointestinal history (ACE-physical: B = 1.25 [0.41–2.10]) were multivariable predictors of worse outcomes. At 6-months, psychiatric (GOSE ≤ 6: OR = 2.57 [1.38–4.77]; ACE-physical: B = 1.38 [0.68–2.09]; ACE-cognitive: B = 0.74 [0.28–1.20]; ACE-sleep: B = 0.51 [0.20–0.83]; ACE-emotional: B = 0.93 [0.53–1.33]), and headache/migraine history (ACE-physical: B = 1.81 [0.79–2.84]) predicted worse outcomes. Conclusions: Pre-injury psychiatric and pre-injury headache/migraine symptoms are risk factors for worse functional and post-concussive outcomes at 3- and 6-months post-mTBI. mTBI patients presenting to acute care should be evaluated for psychiatric and headache/migraine history, with lower thresholds for providing TBI education/resources, surveillance, and follow-up/referrals.

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Keywords functional impairment, mild traumatic brain injury, post-concussive symptoms, pre-injury comorbidities, prognosis
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Journal Frontiers in Neurology
Yue, J.K, Cnossen, M.C, Winkler, EA, Deng, H.S., Phelps, R.R.L., Coss, N.A., … Morabito, DJ. (2019). Pre-injury Comorbidities Are Associated With Functional Impairment and Post-concussive Symptoms at 3-and 6-Months After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A TRACK-TBI Study. Frontiers in Neurology, 10. doi:10.3389/fneur.2019.00343